How Does Formula 1 Make Money? Business Model Explained

Formula 1, the pinnacle of motorsport, is not only an exhilarating sport but also a multi-billion-dollar business. While racing in F1 is undeniably expensive, teams continuously invest in car development and innovation to secure a competitive edge.

In this article, we will delve into the intricate business model of Formula 1 and explore the various avenues through which the sport generates revenue.

F1 Team Budgets and Profitability

The question of whether F1 teams make money is complex. The top-tier teams such as Red Bull and Mercedes have managed to turn a profit, with earnings ranging between $10-20 million in 2021. However, the majority of teams break even or come close to it.

Considering that the budgets of the leading teams can exceed $450 million, one might wonder where all that money goes.

The high costs associated with F1 stem from the sport’s elite status, which attracts top-tier drivers, administrators, and engineers.

Moreover, the logistical challenges of participating in 22 to 23 races per season, coupled with extensive research and development expenses, contribute to the substantial financial burden. So, how do F1 teams manage to sustain themselves financially despite these immense costs? Let’s find out.

Formula 1 Payments

One of the primary revenue sources for F1 teams is the payments they receive from the sport itself. Each team in the championship receives approximately $36 million in prize money derived from TV rights and circuit sponsorships. Furthermore, teams earn additional payments based on their performance in the constructors’ championship.

For instance, in 2021, Mercedes, as the championship winner, received $61 million, while Williams, at the bottom of the standings, received $13 million.

Notably, Ferrari enjoys a special privilege, receiving an extra $68 million simply for being Ferrari. Moreover, there are various bonuses and heritage payments granted to teams for their past achievements, such as McLaren, Red Bull, Mercedes, and Ferrari receiving substantial sums.

The Concorde Agreement, a pivotal contract in F1, plays a role in ensuring the financial stability of the incumbent teams. It requires new entrants to pay $200 million upfront, shared equally among the ten existing teams, in exchange for the right to share prize money and TV revenue. This agreement helps safeguard the value of established teams and ensures a more balanced distribution of funds.

Car Manufacturers

A crucial aspect of F1’s business model lies in its appeal as a marketing tool for car manufacturers. Success in the sport entices fans to associate themselves with winning teams and, in turn, consider purchasing cars from the same manufacturer. For instance, supporters of Red Bull might be more inclined to choose a Honda vehicle over a Mercedes or Alpine.

Car manufacturers, such as Mercedes and Ferrari, invest significant sums of money into their F1 teams. In 2019, Daimler, the parent company of Mercedes, injected $80 million into the team to support their Constructors Championship bid.

Furthermore, constructors often sell engines to other teams, creating additional revenue streams. For example, Mercedes supplies engines to McLaren, Aston Martin, and Williams, while Ferrari provides engines to Alfa Romeo and Haas.


Undoubtedly, sponsorships are the most lucrative avenue for F1 teams to generate revenue. Successful teams with a strong track record can attract sponsors willing to invest substantial sums of money. The sponsorship amounts can range from €500,000 to €50 million per season, depending on the team’s strength and pedigree.

Sponsorship levels determine the branding opportunities available to sponsors. A sponsorship deal starting at €500,000 may not include prominent branding on the car or driver. However, for €1 million, sponsors can have their logos displayed on midfield cars.

The top teams, such as Ferrari, Mercedes, and Red Bull, command sponsorship fees ranging from €3-5 million. Title sponsorships, which offer extensive exposure and branding rights, can cost anywhere from $20-50 million per year.

Notable sponsorship deals include Cognizant’s €35 million agreement with Aston Martin and Petronas’ €42 million partnership with Mercedes. Additionally, Oracle secured a $300 million five-year sponsorship deal with Red Bull Racing, highlighting the substantial investments made by companies to associate themselves with the sport.

Pay Drivers

In Formula 1, pay drivers play a role in covering team expenses. Pay drivers refer to individuals who fund their seats through personal sponsors rather than being paid by the teams themselves.

While pay drivers have existed in motorsport for a long time, they often face criticism. Examples of pay drivers include Lance Stroll, who is supported by his father Lawrence Stroll, and Nicolas Latifi, whose sponsorship from Lavazza Coffee and Sofina Foods secures his position at Williams.

TV Rights and Global Feed

To support its extensive operations, Formula 1 relies heavily on selling TV rights worldwide. Initiatives like “Drive to Survive” have been implemented to expand the sport’s reach, particularly in the United States. In 2020, global TV contracts contributed a substantial $587 million to the coffers of Liberty Media, the company that owns Formula 1. This revenue stream is expected to continue growing.

Formula 1 sells a Global Feed to rights holders, who then integrate it into their subscription services. The prices for accessing F1 coverage vary widely from country to country. For instance, fans in Indonesia can pay as little as £20 for an entire year of Sky coverage, while fans in the UK pay £30 per month.

Race-Sanctioning Fees

Race-sanctioning fees paid by event promoters represent another significant revenue source for Formula 1. These fees contribute to the overall financial health of the sport. On average, organizing an F1 race costs around $31 million.

However, the fees can vary depending on the historical significance and prestige of the venue. For example, the iconic Monaco Grand Prix pays less than the average, while Qatar and Saudi Arabia pay more than the norm.

Ticket Sales and On-Track Sponsorship

Lastly, ticket sales and on-track sponsorship provide Formula 1 with a substantial portion of its income. Spectators attending races and on-track sponsors, such as Pirelli and Rolex, contribute to the financial success of the sport.

While this revenue stream may not be as significant as TV rights and sponsorships, it nevertheless plays a crucial role in supporting the overall operations of Formula 1.


Formula 1’s business model is a complex ecosystem where revenue streams intertwine to sustain the sport’s operations.

Through TV rights, sponsorships, payments from the sport itself, and additional sources like race-sanctioning fees and ticket sales, Formula 1 teams are able to cover their expenses and, in some cases, generate profits.

As the sport continues to evolve and expand its global reach, its financial landscape will likely undergo further transformations, ensuring the continuation of one of the world’s most thrilling and captivating sports.

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